How to Become an IT Worker. Instruction for 11th graders and their parents. part 3

How to Become an IT Worker. Instruction for 11th graders and their parents. part 3


Alexander Selyutin

What specialty to choose?

We’ve talked a lot about the IT professions, but let’s get back to the first statement: “I want to be a programmer”.

First of all, when you come to the institute and start to get acquainted with the list of its departments and specialties, you will be surprised that there are dozens of very similar specialties, but among them
no … programming. There is a reasonable question: what do all other specialties mean and why are they taught?

For the sake of common understanding, I give you something like a brief “explanatory vocabulary of IT specializations” with a description of what, in my opinion, you can get in each case. Once again, let me remind you: or not
expect that these specialties will teach you how to program cool. The main thing is to give you the ability to think systematically and “algorithmically”. Everything else, believe me, will be put into practice.

I took a few highly respected IT institutes and saw what they had to offer. The Dictionary provides a possible specialty name and a more or less comprehensible translation into the “human” language (from
based on the information previously provided). Grouped specialties in appearance, briefly described their differences from each other.

Specialties about systems

The first group of similar names is about systems. And while outwardly they look to the uninitiated as “butter,” in practice, these are completely different specialties and professions.

1.1. Automatic control systems

1.2. Information processing and control systems

1.3. Computer aided design systems

Within the group of specialties 1.1 are preparing future automation technologists of direct devices and mechanisms that will be engaged, for example, in the design and creation of CNC machines
(Numerical control), creation of 3D printers of completely different directions (by the way, in the Emirates, 3D printers are already printing houses at home), space automation
ships and the development of other engineering devices of different (sometimes fantastic) directions. Accordingly, in our terminology are pure “nuclear” and “system engineers”. Most often such specialists
work in research institutes and at the enterprises at them, devoting themselves to a specific industry.

Specialty 1.2, with its outward resemblance to 1.1, trains specialists of a completely different kind. Depending on the direction of the institute, such departments may be derived from or
mathematicians, or IT economists. In any case, graduates of this specialty will be closer to the “applicators” in our terminology. Their task will be to work with or directly from
data (including BigData Big Data) in the part of searching, creating and implementing systems for data collection and storage, extracting from the largest arrays of heterogeneous data (for example, about
residents of a particular city) useful for business, for managing information. By the way, data is just letters and numbers, and information is letters and numbers that have any value.

But specialty 1.3, which is also very similar in appearance to 1.1, is radically different from its two “twins”. CAD (computer aided design) is a whole class of software,
which by means of the computer allow to design any objects: both buildings and mechanisms of any complexity (cars, engines, pipelines and oil drilling rigs), etc.
Accordingly, each industry trains specialists who possess such tools (able to work with CAD). In fact, these are the profile engineers, technological inventors in these
industries that invent and then design their own in specialized computer systems. Yes, sometimes such systems contain elements of programming, but the main activity
these professionals are industry-specific engineering, not pure IT.

The following specialty may be met:

1.4. Automation of production activity of the enterprise

It is very close to the previously described specialty 1.1, but its focus is directly on the automation of production itself – the design of conveyors, automated and
robotic lines (from car assembly to candy production, from grain sowing to road construction). Of course, each of the industries is preparing its own profile automators of production.
And in our terminology, of course, this is more “nuclear” and “system engineers”.

applied specialties

The second group of consonant specialties are applied specialties:

2.1. Applied Mathematics

2.2. applied informatics

2.3. Applied Cybernetics

2.4. Applied mechanics

Purely it is only the first two of them. And in the specialty 2.1 study mathematics in all its kinds very deeply – mathematical analysis, statistics and probability theory, linear
algebra and others. And already in this deep, powerful mathematics impose programming skills. As a rule, the most powerful, powerful programmers and system engineers come from this
specialty, if they lack the perseverance, patience and desire for knowledge.

Specialty 2.2 is the same classic “applicators” in industries that can program a little, but, most importantly, are able to set the task of developing useful programs and systems. This is today
the most popular and sought after destination in any industry. As a rule, the profile institute adds to the name of this specialty a profile: applied informatics in medicine, in
economy, transport, agriculture, etc.

Specialty 2.3. rather rare, because as such cybernetics has not developed very much in our country because of the ban on it in a certain historical period in
USSR. Therefore, cybernetics as a discipline (science) “to designate and describe the processes of control in complex systems – social, biological and technical” is usually referred to through
“Managerial” specialties.

Specialty 2.4. related to specialties 1.1 and 1.4 with the only difference that in the preparation of “applied mechanics” more prepare it inventors than “collectors” of different mechanisms.

Specialties about computers and systems

The third large group of specialties that are “similar” to each other are specialties about computers and systems:

3.1. Computer systems and networks

3.2. Computer software and information technology

3.3. Information systems

As part of their training in these areas, they produce professionals who typically have basic programming skills, but their main skill is to build information
(Computer) infrastructure, often referred to as the IT landscape. Their tasks include designing, installing and configuring servers and networks, workstations, deploying everything they need
software – from operating systems and office systems to the same ones. From my point of view, similar skills can be learned without years of (and sometimes expensive) specialized
higher education, moreover, they often “grow” during the development of the same applied specialties in the second group. However, if you want to be “closer to computers” but do not have a shower
just for programming (both system and application), this specialty group may be quite relevant to you.

To distinguish them at least, I will give a very conditional classification of these three specialties:

  • specialty 3.1 will teach you how to build servers and networks, and connect workstations to them;

  • specialty 3.2 – to install on it all system (operating systems) and general (for example, office) software;

  • specialty 3.3. – Understand (fairly top-level) in general in all variety of software (ERP, CRM, CAD and others).

Not far from these three specialties lies another very important, deep specialization:

3.4. Information Security (IB)

I may be disappointed by many here. Once again, this is all my personal opinion. However, a person who has been working in IT for 25 years, has implemented hundreds of projects (including very large-scale) and
he was even the IT minister of one of the regions. But I can be wrong too.

True information security is the level of “nuclear” and “system engineers”. It is they who invent and “build” the same “IT safes”. All other “security”, as a rule, only install
programs and write paper!

I understand that I have “made” very sharply now (let my colleagues excuse me), but there is very little creative work in “full-time” information security. Yes, there is the task of contour design
information security, its creation and configuration, hacking attacks, even information intelligence – this is the IB, but this discipline is taught in literally three or five institutes. under
all other institutes you will study the normative acts and laws on personal data for four years.

Most often, this specialization comes from system administrators – those who monitor the “order” in all networks and on all computers of the enterprise. Rare institutions in the training of IB specialists
they pay enough attention and time to programming themselves, but those who specialize in this area – MIFI, MFTI, FSO Academy and a number of others – produce real “hackers”
(Only, mc – don’t tell anyone about it).

So think hard: do you really want to become “security”? If the answer is yes, then focus on specialized universities.

Some more specialties

Finally, I would like to draw your attention to some interesting specializations that are related to IT (though not direct).

First of all, it is:

4.1. robotics

4.2. Artificial Intelligence

4.3. Orientation, stabilization and navigation devices and systems

These areas now penetrate virtually every area of ​​our lives at breakneck speed, going beyond our forefathers – especially military specialties. From my point of view, very much
promising to get into these specialties, but … Really, there is one “but»- so far, there are very few specialists in the country who can prepare them thoroughly and qualitatively. So if
your choice belongs to this group of specialties, then I recommend to focus on advanced institutes, otherwise after leaving the institute after 4-5 years you are already hopelessly outdated. But, again I’ll make a reservation,
this is my personal opinion.

Bioengineering is one of the possible promising directions in which the boom is also expected in the next 5-10 years. In this case, it will, of course, at the core of its information technologies
(Management, design, analysis, imitation, decision-making systems), and robotics (e.g., endoscopes and exoskeletons, intellectual prostheses, and life support systems – without it
it is impossible to advance in the field of “cultivation” of artificial organs, cloning and other promising areas of bioengineering. So it makes sense to those who are friends with chemistry and biology
pay attention to the following specialties:

4.4. Biomedical technical systems

4.5. Medical-technical information technologies

Specialty 4.4, above all, prepares System Engineer and Nuclear Engineers, and also Medicine Nuclear Engineers.

But the natives of the specialty 4.5 are, first of all, “instances” – those who are most likely to become “translators” between the doctor and the technologist (“iron”, “System”, “nuclear”). I think
that a graduate of this specialty in 15 years will be one of the most respected and important specialists in key clinics in the world.

the time of desires

There are some simple steps to help you understand yourself.

Yes, if the question “What do I want?“In 15-17 years to answer difficult, very, very difficult, then the question:”what am i NOT want?»It’s always easier to answer. And the question is even easier:
«And do I want this? »

  • Do I want to work permanently in the office? Or will I want to start my day at a new place every day?

  • Do I want a lot of communication at work? Or do I want to be less bothered?

  • Do I want to teach people, share knowledge? Or do I not want to tell anyone at all?

  • Do I want to make decisions, be responsible? Or is it hard for me, do I want to be a professional but a performer?

  • Do I want to come up with? Or do I like to implement some of my ideas?

All people are different. And everyone will answer the question in their own way. Moreover, each of them will be asked in his own way.

There is, however, another question that you should not forget to ask yourself: “And this one I want?»Or mine wants it parents. Or my friends … Honest answer to these questions
significantly simplifies life!

So:

First of all – we need to stop being afraid – ourselves, others, illusions, future work, that we will have much less to “hang out”.

After that, make sure you (viz you) Of this (viz this) You want. You want to go to an institute for that specialty.

Next, you need to set yourself up for future serious work a year (or even two) ahead.

Finally, ask the same “right” question:

And what do I need to do?

Oddly enough, most of the answers suddenly pop into your head. Nowadays, there are quite a few tools that will not only get these answers, but also at no great cost (or
in general, without them) to realize them. But first of all, you need to define:

  • Which exams will I be preparing for ?!

  • How much time a day will I devote to each of them?

  • How many points do I need for each exam?

After that, make a schedule and … act! The main thing is not to give up!

education and training

IT-Manager Magazine [№ 01/2020],

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