More recently, it would have seemed surprising that astronomers could observe planets near stars through telescopes hundreds of light years away from our system. But this is so, in which space telescopes put into orbits have greatly helped. In particular, the Kepler mission, which has assembled a base of thousands of exoplanets over a decade of work. These archives are still to be studied and studied, and new approaches to analysis allow making interesting discoveries.
For example, in a recent article in Astrobiology, a team of scientists from Washington State University reported on the selection of 24 exoplanets, the living conditions on which could be more favorable than on Earth. The exoplanets are selected from the base of the Kepler orbiting telescope mission, which helped to detect the so-called transit method, when the planet is discovered while passing over the disk of its native star.
But before looking for extraterrestrial “corners of paradise”, scientists have formed the criteria by which a new selection was carried out. So, in addition to searching for exoplanets in the habitable zone of stars, where liquid water could stay on a rocky planet and not freeze or boil away, several new ones were added to the search factors. First, it is proposed to search for exoplanets in stellar systems slightly smaller than the Sun, which belong to the K class (the Sun belongs to the G class). Slightly less hot K type dwarfs live up to 70 billion years, while type G stars do not differ in longevity and live for about 10 billion years. A 70 billion path could clearly give life a better chance than a seven times shorter path.
Second, a slightly larger exoplanet than Earth, say 10% larger, would provide more area for life. Thirdly, a more massive exoplanet, one and a half times larger than the Earth, could hold the atmosphere longer and, due to a more active and larger core, would hold heat longer. The same goes for the electromagnetic field, which is believed to be largely due to the nucleus. Fourth, if the average annual temperature on the exoplanet is 5 ° C higher than on Earth, this would also have a positive effect on biodiversity.
In general, none of the 24 candidate exoplanets for the role of “paradise” can boast of the entire complex of factors favorable to the riot of life, but one of them simultaneously satisfies four criteria. Thus, scientists have chosen a target for a closer study of candidates for alien life. And scientific forces and means are not endless. It is impossible without a goal.
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