We choose Linux instead of Windows 7, or Medium Crisis
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We choose Linux instead of Windows 7, or Medium Crisis


Yevgeny Khramov

With the end of support for Windows 7, both business executives and regular users have a question: what to do? With this article, we open a series of articles about the transition to
Linux. Which distribution to choose? How does a Windows user get used to? How to solve the usual problems in an unusual environment? These and other questions are answered by our expert Yevgeny Khramov.

I sit at a coffee shop table and mournfully look away. With such a person it is most convenient to think about long gone days, lost opportunities and grumble about how sad and difficult it is to live in 2020.

Tell me, where did the daguerreotypes, gas lanterns and skates come from? Where is the steamship route “Saint Petersburg – Tsarskoe Selo?” What happened to disk dialers and good old ones
sizzling and wheezing analog PBX? Where did the wonderful Ural-112 radio with its lacquered plywood sides and the green light that came on when you turned on go missing? Whats now with
the dream of my childhood – a single-cassette “Romantic”, which had such a wonderful mechanical meter with a reset button, and in a special window you could watch the film spin in
cassettes …

Okay locomotives – where did the miracle shops with sliced ​​unknown by whom and how “licensed” doodles disappeared? “Top 1000 PC Games”, Newest XP Drivers and 8 in 1 Movies with Stunning
artifacts running around the screen, and all this splendor was inexpensive and for 100 rubles you could buy all versions of CAD, adding another hundred – to open your record label, and
in the presence of three hundred, there was nothing impossible in this universe.

And somewhere far, on-a-n around the corner, only 15 years ago there were stalls with broken software, acid builds, the most important OS in the world of Dr.Evil and various keygenes in the appendages. Remember?

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Photo: Alexey Zubrag

And now? What fun life can offer an elderly man of retirement age, who has lived in this world for forty years? Do you think anything new? Yes, I thought so too …

Thank you huge “best OS in the world”, started moving to the next version and ending support for the old one. To be honest: what small business owners, office workers and all would do
other ordinary users, if not this landmark event? They would work on any other way, do boring daily tasks, go home after five o’clock and rejoice,
that no check can cancel the presence of a good sticker with a license key on a native old laptop. Everything would be in its turn, without the frills, freethinking and scandals of the people
masses.

So, forced to repeat again – thank you to the best OS in the world! Now it is not necessary to sit in the forums, every minute there is fresh news: «They are watching us! Collect statistics and send
its unknown where! “,” The driver-less scanner pops the lid and threatens the secretary to scan it completely! “,” IP Pupkin has given his latest shirt for system updates! ».

Competitors have also intensified, claiming that the future of Open Source and all that we pay money for can be obtained free of charge. These are called the “best” alternative operating systems that can completely change
market. Features and free solutions that work even on a twenty-year-old pawn are described. All this fireworks of paint and a rage of imagination gave rise to the thought in my gray head: why not
describe in your own experience how possible and profitable it is for a business to replace a standard paid OS for free distribution? Well, after all, why not find the answer to the most important thing
a question that has been bothering me for years: where is the C drive in Linux, the Windows system drive, and where do these strange alphabets come from? / Dev / sda1 or / Dev / sdb? maybe,
is this disk being dumped in the basement and offending it in the dark? Or do vicious competitors generally erase it during installation?

After exploring the myriad of forums, articles and reviews, it became clear: there are still people who install Linux as a primary or secondary OS, use it without much trouble, and even
dare to recommend to others. The tick method identified three OSes that were planned to be pre-formatted and partitioned into SSD sections. This was done solely to
find out if different OSs can interact or at least interfere with each other, whether the average user is able to migrate to an alternate OS and with how many problems they have
will have to face it.

Candidates for the role of experimental rabbits were chosen by chance. Here are their names:

  • Fedora-Workstation-Live-x86_64-31-1.9;

  • OpenSUSE-Leap-15.1;

  • Ubuntu-19.04.

OS evaluation was performed according to several parameters:

  • ease of installation;

  • ease of adjustment of the minimum required functions;

  • ease of use for the untrained person;

  • compatible with peripherals (scanner, printer, MFP).

Fedora 31

The biggest difficulty is to go to getfedora.org, not to get lost and not to forget why you came here at all. A lot of information about the OS and the choice of download options are pleased. The system image can be downloaded
both via the browser and through BitTorrent. Choosing as many as seven to eight OS environments! Especially for beginners who don’t say the abbreviations KDE, XFCE, GNOME, data
explanations and screenshots that show how the system will look after installing any of the options.

Much admiring the beauty and capabilities of SPIN-off, with a heavy heart I was forced to return to the main version. because
this is the official version of the OS, it was still necessary to learn Fedora from it.

The installation itself is quite simple. First of all, it is suggested to choose a language to control the installation process. I must say, this action required my greatest efforts: the fact is that
Cyrillic languages ​​are in the list far below and have to rotate the mouse wheel a little. Provided that the OS is the sole or, as a last resort,

second working system, further installation is reduced to primitive pressing of keys “Yes”, “OK”, “Agree”. The installer independently found free space on the hard drive and suggested
format and break it into sections. After some standard questions about time zone, username and password for root user (analog
Admin in Windows), you need to wait a bit, and here’s the new window to welcome you with the following window:

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It really does provide beginner details, even educational videos. I think it’s very useful and convenient, but! The first attempt to watch the video did not appear though
the audio track was playing. When you try again, the computer hung up and thought about what was going on for a long, hard time and to no avail. And for the third time, the system is probably unpleasantly shocked by my persistence, simply
closed the dating window. I was introduced to an angry girl, clattering windows shut, muttering under her breath something about “these dumb little booths.”

However, the system has a Libre Office suite installed, so we have the ability to work with texts, spreadsheets and presentations. The internet is twisted pair connected
automatically, so installing any software is accessible to even the newcomer: just click on the word “Browse” and select the icon with the image of a shopping bag.

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As a result, we see the following picture:

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Each category contains dozens of freeware and fully working applications: browsers, email clients, download managers, video and audio players, toys, readers and tutorials. All,
what we are required to do is select everything you want, click the Install button and enter the root (admin) password as needed.

Applications such as: WhatsApp, Viber, Skype, could not be found among the available applications, but when downloaded from official sites everything is installed without problems.

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My ‘Xerox Phaser 6022’ has a proud sticker on the body that confirms printer support for MacOS, Windows and Linux. Indeed, after downloading and installing drivers from the official site
Xerox I received a printout of the test text. It should be borne in mind that not all manufacturers are so supportive of their products: for example, mine
the old Canon ScanLide 600F never worked and probably never works in Linux. It is best to check with the manufacturer before purchasing a peripheral device whether the device will work under
Linux.

A common problem with using linux systems is the lack of video codecs installed, so any attempt to watch the video results in a black screen only and a search offer
needed on the Internet. In this case, we will need a little magic spells. Several in a row: “Browse” → “Show Applications” → “Applications” → “Terminal” and in the window we write:

sudo dnf install https://download1.rpmfusion.org/{free/fedora/rpmfusion-free,nonfree/fedora/rpmfusion-nonfree} -release – $ (rpm
-E% fedora) .noarch.rpm

Then enter the root (admin) password and periodically confirm the action with the keys “D” → Enter.

Now we introduce:

sudo dnf groupupdate multimedia sound-and-video

and periodically confirm actions with the keys “D” → Enter.

After executing the command and completing the codec installation, you can safely close the terminal window and watch the video. Sometimes. Through time. Purely theoretical … And you can not look, this is how lucky. to me
I had to restart my computer with the power button a couple of times because there were no other options.

As a result, I got the impression of Fedora as a possible alternative to standard OS for ordinary users, but with some limitations. The fact is that Fedora is used as a platform
for running the Red Hat commercial distribution, so unexpected conflicts and complexities can occur when used. Community forums even recommend novice users to download
penultimate OS as more stable. Frankly speaking, the solution is the same, especially given that the user is performing the duties of a free tester. Using the terminal
instead of a graphical interface (GUI), it can also push those who want to upgrade to a new OS.

OpenSUSE Leap 15.1

The support site offers two distribution options: Tumbleweed and Leap. The difference between them was quite difficult to understand, but all decided the phrase in the description of one of the options: “If
you need … a stable platform closest to the cutting edge of Linux, then Tumbleweed is your choice. ” Reflecting on leisure and remembering that there were artillery shells, mortar fire at the front,
hand-to-hand and there is a real opportunity to die the death of the brave, my instinct for self-preservation has decided to download OpenSuse
Leap
. You can use a browser, torrent client or .metalink file to download the image.

As it turned out during the installation, the OS also has the ability to choose the design of the desktop. And let the graphical interface options be just three, but all of them are time-tested and
users. The explanations for the variants are not very informative, so I strongly recommend to point the mouse to any variant with a GUI. Personally, I’m closest to Gnome.

Very pleased with the OpenSuse site. More simple and clear instructions for those who want to join the army of happy users and come up with
impossible. Want to know how to burn a DVD to Windows? Or create bootable media in OS X? Please: read, watch and do. The community is so loyal to newcomers that
there is even a complete “OpenSUSE Beginner’s Guide”. now it is
presented in English only, but with the help of an online translator I received a very clear text: it addresses most situations that a beginner may encounter, and
the ways of their solution are shown. In the future, there may be a Russian-language version.

If you set the OS as a single system, the main task – to find the button “Next” and not miss when you press it, since it is small and well hidden in the lower right corner of the screen.

In the case of two or more operating systems, the installer behaves very delicately and tries to find a free, unformatted space where he can place his system. In addition, the menu has a mode
expert markup, where you can choose the place to install the OS yourself: in this case, it is important not to overestimate your strength, understand exactly what you are going to do, and do not accidentally erase the photo with
family archive.

After installation, we get a standard desktop, in my case, Gnome.

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No greetings or training videos, and no usage tips. If you type “Help” in the search box, you can read the instructions for using the Gnome desktop, where
The easy questions are addressed before copying files from one folder to another.

I find it much more convenient to search for data on the Web: the Internet connection is already working and you can just start the browser. The starting page offers to go to the official site, get the software
provide or search for answers to questions in the Wiki.

After the installation was completed, about 50 different browsers, toys, mail clients, and office applications appeared on the computer. All this wealth is easy to multiply by opening the Application Center: all applications are sorted, provided with screenshots and explained.

Video codecs will have to be installed by itself, for the sake of a few mouse clicks. Then everything works as it should: Indian
the rajahs can sing and dance again, the hobbits go to Orodruin again, and the kids constantly squeal with the adventures of Mice.

There were also no problems with Viber messengers, Skype and the WhatsApp web application. The official sites did not offer packages for OpenSuse, but you can download standard RPM for Fedora – it
installed without problems.

In general, OpenSUSE is a very user-friendly system and is well suited for those who want to get started with Linux.

Ubuntu 19.04

The site ubuntu.ru looks utterly ascetic: no pictures, animations, or frenzy of colors. At first, the idea that
the owner just didn’t have enough money. But, apparently, the OS ideology itself implies the maximum of possibilities with external intentional simplicity. To see this, it is enough to read the description of the twelve
(!!!) OS options available for download and installation. They are all different in appearance, minimum iron requirements and installed programs, and the information on each is so clear and
just formulated into one sentence. Anyone can go to the link in the description and consider everything in detail.

Most of the Ubuntu family are not available for direct download or torrent download. For lovers of standing out from the gray mass, I can recommend Ubuntu Kylin: Designed specifically for Chinese friends, it is full of mysterious characters and is definitely found in Russia
not often.

Most enjoyable for a beginner on Linux Ubuntu – a great forum, good Russian-language documentation and a huge community of users. It is because of the massive use of this OS that it is likely to occur
the difficulties are very small. The most unpleasant thing for people with unstable psyche is the background of the desktop, even at me it immediately evokes thoughts of eternal. However, such an alarming symptom is easily treated
replacing the picture with any other.

The first time you start up with USB, we are invited to try the system: at this time, you can do anything you want – to go to the Internet, try installed programs or just click the mouse
wherever the soul desires. For those who decide to install the system on their machine, there is a special big button “Install Ubuntu”.

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During the installation process, Ubuntu detects other OSes installed on it, and by default offers to install itself next to them. However, other systems retain performance, all files and
previously created documents remain in place. The installer menu offers several more options, each with a concise explanation, but should be used thoughtfully,
fully comprehending the consequences of their actions. For me, the “Other” option, which has the ability to specify a disk for the system bootloader (a program that when turned on, is most suitable for me)
allows you to choose which OS to run), allocate disk space, format it, and install the system where it is convenient.

The installation itself takes very little time. By personal experience, this is the fastest of the three options, unless, of course, you are allowed to download system updates during the installation process. (If
allow, then further will depend only on the channel width allocated by your provider.)

At the finish line, we get a fully operational blue-violet-red system with an internet connection. Excuse me please unknown designers, but first of all I had to install another
background. Then you can click on the question mark on the left side of the screen and call the “Ubuntu User’s Guide”: it just explains the basic principles of the system.

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The manual is only partially translated, there are texts in English as well, but frankly, I never needed it. It’s easier to ask a question in the browser’s search bar and get one
dozens of options for solving any problem. By the way, this is the main advantage of Ubuntu – a huge number of users around the world. Вероятнее всего, кто-либо уже сталкивался с подобной
  проблемой и решил ее задолго до вас.

Приятной неожиданностью стало и то, что Viber, Skype и некоторые другие мессенджеры, которые лучше не упоминать (Telegram, например), доступны для установки в стандартном менеджере приложений (а
  значит, нет необходимости искать их на официальных сайтах). Здесь же содержатся сотни других полезных приложений, совместимых с Ubuntu, большинство которых имеют описание на русском языке или
  полностью русифицированы.

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И там же, в менеджере приложений, находится видеоплеер VLC, который, не стесняясь и не переживая по поводу проприетарных видеокодеков, скачал их при установке. Так что видео заработало практически
  сразу.

Драйвера для моего принтера, после скачивания с сайта, встали без проблем, и через несколько минут я смог распечатать необходимые тексты.

Диски, отформатированные в файловой системе NTFS, находятся на своем месте, а файлы, созданные с помощью Windows-приложений, открываются и редактируются без проблем. Что еще нужно человеку для
  счастья? Как ни странно, но про Ubuntu – единственную ОС, задавшую мне минимум вопросов, наиболее быструю и удобную в установке, имеющую наибольшее количество доступных приложений и функционирующую
  практически без проблем, – больше сказать нечего. Работает так, как мне нужно, и, вероятно, приживется на моей машине надолго.

О правах и лицензиях. Fedora 31 распространяется под свободной лицензией, что бы это ни значило, но при всей своей свободности запрещена к поставкам в Крым.

OpenSuse Leap 15.1 – под лицензией GNU GPL. Запрещена для использования в каком-либо
  ядерном, химическом или биологическом оружии государственного значения и ракетных технологиях конечного использования без разрешения правительства США. Интересно, кто-нибудь из разработчиков
  биологического оружия использует ее вопреки запрету?

Ubuntu 19.04 – GNU GPL. Кто знает, можно ее в офисе установить или нет? Не придут со штрафами ко мне?

Подытожим всё вышеизложенное

Действительно, Linux-системы достаточно просты в установке и способны работать даже с самым древним «железом». Все варианты подопытных ОС очень деликатно относились к предустановленной Windows и не
  пытались каким-либо образом нарушить ее работоспособность. Все системные файлы Windows после установки второй, альтернативной системы сохранились. Все рабочие файлы, созданные в
  Windows-приложениях, читались и открывались без проблем. Вопросов совместимости файловых систем NTFS+FAT32 и EXT4+BTRFS не возникало. Во время включения компьютера для пользователя всегда
  сохранялась возможность выбора – какая ОС предпочтительна в данный момент.

Файловые менеджеры достаточно просты и внешне мало чем отличаются от стандартного проводника Windows, разве что папочки там не желтенькие, а синенькие или оранжевые. Но вряд ли это может кому-либо
  помешать в работе.

Совместимость с периферийными устройствами в Linux имеется, но для полной уверенности лучше перед покупкой проверить наличие драйверов на сайте или проконсультироваться у производителя.

По субъективным ощущениям, любой человек, перешедший с кнопочных телефонов на смартфоны, способен перейти на любую другую операционную систему и спокойно в ней ориентироваться.

К сожалению, метод научного тыка – дело трудозатратное, и в выборку не попали такие симпатичные дистрибутивы, как серо-зеленый Manjaro, микроскопический Puppy Linux или на худой конец какой-либо
  продукт от монстров отечественного системостроения. Думаю, что в дальнейшем я смогу наверстать это упущение, но на данный момент мне кажется более интересным опыт практического применения
  альтернативных ОС в офисной рутине или в малом и микробизнесе.

Более того, в полном согласии с печальным жизненным опытом и отвратительным характером мне кажется невозможным полностью беспроблемный переход на другую ОС. Где-то что-то когда-то просто обязано
  пойти не так! Поисками этого где-то что-то я и планирую заниматься далее.

Засим позвольте откланяться.

Linux, Операционная система

IT-Expert Magazine [№ 01/2020],


Евгений Храмов

Евгений Храмов

Несомненно, творчески одаренная и разносторонне развитая личность.
Благодаря этим качествам ему удается сломать неломаемое, починить не подлежащее ремонту и заставить работать то, что по всем законам морали, физики и здравого смысла работать не должно.
На фото запечатлен в момент собственноручно сотворенного софт-апокалипсиса местного значения с интересом вопрошающим у собственных верхних конечностей:
– Ручки, мои рученьки! Как же так получилось?!
Осмысленное выражение лица выдает в нем гиганта мысли, а причудливое расположение верхних хватательных органов намекает на генетическую предрасположенность и врожденную способность к разнообразным экспериментам.

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